Remember I mentioned impulse control and how that is what the pain trainer is fast tracking towards? Here are some experts in the field of behavior and biology that actually know what they are doing when it comes to stress related fallouts in animals.
If the dog that is barking today at other dogs is given too much and even one time is “too much” fear and pain based “training”, or “discipline”, tomorrow that same dog could wind up being fearful of dogs, or humans, or if that cat they wanted to chase is the cause for the them being challenging, and they get shocked or choked or issued some form of harsh punishment, they may not want to chase cats but they also may have some stress related illness when that “discipline” is being issued over & over to get that “calm” dog.
Dogs have long-term memory, it occurs mainly in the hippocampus. Long-term memory is the by-product of conditioning. This is a fact. This is why dogs learn to go to the back door and scratch for a potty break, or get the leash, even if you never “trained ” it. This long term memory encoding is not fiction, and when part of the brain is conditioned with positive reinforcement and safe punishments, or kind consequences, and not filled with lesions and fear related memories that are causing the dog to have an overly generalized sense of fear, the dog becomes well trained and stays sound. That is far better than fearful, shut down and or aggressive.
Orchestrated interactions with known children under the supervision of their parents or guardians will also help the dog have better associations towards children.
In time with the proper guidance and the proper knowledge of dog and kid safety you can have a dog that was once startled by kids liking them and tolerating the kids that my be a bit more rambunctious, but the humans need to do the work and buy “all in” to the actual factual way that dogs learn and process information, other wise they are barking up the wrong tree.